The  Bulletin of the L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University. Historical sciences. Philosophy. Religion Series scientific journal provides direct open access to its content on a free basis under the license of Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).  You can read the text of the CC BY-NC 4.0 license here.  The authors  are free to:  — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format;  —  convert and build upon the material. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms: Attribution. You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes. No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.